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A STUDY IN ENGLISH VARIETIES USED BY VENDORS IN BANYUMULEK (006)


CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

A. Background

Language is one of the instrument of the human intellectual means of communication of is used to formulate thought and convey message to other. It plays an important role in analyzing human activity, in reasoning, solving problem, and planning actions; language also used to convey memories of the past and beliefs about the future to at also language other to event that have not taken place, and to express the relation between event (Caplan, 2001:1). People also use language in inform others task or give information, to get things done, to request, to ask or give direction, to comment to report, and many other ordinary verbal actions in daily interaction. So it impossible for us to understand other well without a language of without having language people will cripple in their family or social interaction. There is a lot of definition about language given by many experts. But in writing the writer just take some definition given by Financiaro (1974:3) they are:

1. Language is the means by which result of human thought an action are based on

2. Language is a system of rules by which items are stored in the mind and manipulated so as to form infinite items sets of communications

3. Language is learn behavior

4. Language is cultural product subject to lows and principle that are particularly unique to it and partially reflective of general properties of the human mind

5. Language is a system or arbitrary vocal symbol which permits all people in a given culture, or other people who have learned the system of that culture to communication or to interact

From the explanation above, it can concluded that language can express or covey ones emotional needs, thought, desires, and attitudes, control, and many other communicative, purposes. But only others through commutations as stated in wabsteris only can understand all of them. (Hawkins, m. Joyce oxford mini dictionary, 1191:287), the language is words and their use. System of this used by a national or group.

Communication is a process of mutual sharing or use of information collectively in connection with the received and the sender in an information process (Kincaid and scram, 1977: 6) dealing with the definition, communication as a process of delivering information have to be support by each component of communication (Sastro petro, 1972:22). States that there are their main component of communication namely.

1. Source is one who communicates or connect a massage to other

2. Receiver is one who receive a massage

3. Massage is a form of idea .opinion off exacta that is changed trough communication symbol and transmit or other receivers.

Moreover he elaborates that source or sender transmission is a massage to receiver and then the receiver turns into a source or sender and sends the massage again and so on. What does receiver called feed beck send. White feed back, the source or sender has a chance to evaluate whether the communication is successful or failed.

The success of failure of communication depends on how good on coveys his or her ideas to other. Successful communication occurs when speaker and listener reach a common understanding. For this happened, each participant must be able to applay his or her communicative skill effectively especially two fundamental communicative skill of listening and speaking if not communication break down will occur.

As stated previously, language is a medium of communication in fact; many other languages exist in the world. People speak different language in different palace. English spoken in America, England and Australian. While Japan spoken in japan, Spanish is Spanish, German in Germany, among these languages English spoken by great number of people in the world and to become an international language.

Considering the important role of English as an international language, mastering English, as median of c communication in international interaction is necessary because the number of people who speak English has growing rapidly. This condition creates English variety may be established because of their influence of local and culture condition. Local condition

According stated halide (in by Richard, 1974) is grammar belong to standard for the people where is spoken as a second language (richard, 194). It quite different from the countries where English learn to the local condition, but it follows an overseas English to which it referred to a model.

To be able to communacate with the native speaker, local; peope who speak english as a second or a first language have to a quire the standard s from the language any varieties may exist as long as the standard English is understandable. Because the most basic language varieties of social language is used in ordinary conversation. In the sense what we learn in order to interact with throughout our life (freeborn all, 1986). It is the general condition that dialect or variety from is characterized by structural and morphological implication. Generally, certain non standard varieties of English may be viewed as inter language pattern of social interaction (Richard, 1974:76)

Banyumulek village is one of the handicraft villages, where local people make the many things with the clay, secured clay is the most important material needed in Banyumulek village.

Many goods can be produced in Banyumulek village. Those goods are not for local need only, but also for tourism souvenir. That’s why nowadays Banyumulek village is becoming the most important destination of the tours in Lombok.

To be able to know the varieties of English is speech, we should identify the difference accurate and use Standard English as the form. The are some features of the language that device our English into standard of varieties, such as: a. our vocabulary; b. grammar, that is the form of word, taken and how the words are ordered into standard or statement in sentence, and c. pronunciation is speech (freeborn, 1986).

Based of the above features, Banyumulek village, the vendors seem to use some varieties of English in their speech with the tourist where they tend to speak a vendor non-standard apparently.

There is some factor which influence their varieties of English in their speech, such as: education background, situation in the communication take place, and the order.

We will not discuss all of the factors involved, because of the limitation of time, access, ability, and many others reason.

B. Statement Of The Problem

The aim of this research is to overview the general problem that is found in this research. The writer needs so set out the problem that considers appears in this research, such as:

1. What are the characteristics of English varieties used by the vendors at Banyumulek village?

2. What factor contributes to their use?

C. Purpose Of Writing

This writing as aimed to describe:

1. The characteristics of English varieties used by the vendors at Banyumulek village.

2. The situation in which the language is used and tasters contribute the use

D. Assumption Of Writing

Based the statement of the problem above the assumption are:

1. Vendors at Banyumulek village used some characteristics of English varieties

2. Vendors at Banyumulek village used characteristics of English varieties when they instruct with the buyer especially from the foreign country.

E. Definition Of They Key Term

To avoid misunderstanding other readers in definition these writing terms, it is important so the explain a few terms that concern with the writing. The terms that are important to be explained are:

1. English varieties

The state of varying, difference of condition or quality; a group collection. Containing different sort of something or people; a type whish is different from others in a group to which it belong (Ame also vaudeville) a number of musing shorts performance are given (long man dictionary, 1978)

2. Vendors

Vendors are mobile seller (dictionary), vendors at Banyumulek village especially who are, in charge in dealing the transaction with the client in the art shop. They can be the owner directly, or some one who provides service shop.

3. Banyumulek Village

Banyumulek village is parking of gerabah pottery . Banyumulek Is part of west Lombok. Banyumulek is one of craft village, handcraft from they clay in Lombok. Located about 15 kilometers from the capital of West Nusa Tenggara Province (south world). And much tourist is come to Banyumulek village, in the high season their client are foreigner about 70% (July, august, sep), but when the school is the free; most of their clients are domestic 70%. The foreigner use English, as the way of interaction between buyer and seller here is a vendor.

F. Scope Of Writing

In this writing the writer limits the discussion on:

1. The characteristic of English varieties used by vendor sat Bayumulek village. The writer characteristic the varieties of code of English are often influenced by local words of the others. Direct speech the interference of native language structure is the model of their speech. Educational of morphological and lexical system and simplification direct speech are characteristic of English varieties. The first goal of their conversation is to get close and understanding even with very simple sentences. They convey their speech with their paralanguage /gesture.

2. The situation in which the conversation takes places

The use of variety –discussed thought its context refers to situation. As a seller says is, a situation is defined by the related condition to such other particularcomuncating is particular topic, n the particular setting. Is short the characteristic of situation are:

a. The factors that course the code switching in Banyumulek village the code switching happened at Banyumulek village between buyer and seller has some aims as follows

b. Topic of the speech

There are various topics that the writer and vendors conserve about at the same time. The writer analyses about the English varieties used by vendors at Banyumulek village a sisytem of spoken long tahat considers the background of the speaker that has come characteristic to face their utterance. Code normally shown reality of the communicator feeling in society.

According to ( Poedjosodarmo in Rahardi, 2001:22). Code is variants in hierarchy of linguistics. Some language has various codes. While hardtack stated that code has a neutral position because most of the code will not arose the emotional. Wardauck stated “the code is just a system that used by two people in communication

The way of interlocutor’s s related to each other (relationship of roles of interlocutor).

Context of situation is very important is communication, language is primarily used to make meaning socially (Tally, in Fadjri, 1993) the manifestation of the communication in its context is called discourse (Houkes, 1988:64). Discourse shows an utterance follows another in a rational, rule governed meaner (Labov in Montgomery, 1986)

3. The jargon used

The communicates of Banyumulek village mostly have no significance knowledge of English. That’s why of conversing their meaning by the closed correspondent tin their own language.

V: “Hello sir, please come here!”

T: “Hallo can I buy your bowl?”

V: ”yes, please”/

T: how much is it?”

V: “I give you morning price sir.”

T: “what is it?”

V: very cheep, sir” to open business. Only 50 thousand rupiahs.

The situation is happening in the morning /opening profit, when the vendor just open his/her gallery/shop. The vendor tries to ensure the buyer that the price is a special.

G. Signification Of Writing

1. Studying the kind of English varieties will help us to be much aware of how we adopt appropriate one in certain situation.

- To analysis the language that used by vendor at Banyumulek village grammatically, and the use of correct English from.

- To analysis’s the situation communication that happen between vendor (local people) and the buyer (foreigner)

2. Those facts recognize that language used in any aspect that should be based on the situation or setting in which it occurs and, grammatically and semantically appropriate.


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